Radioactive materials and equipment(medical equipments) that generate radiation are prevalent in industry, military, education, science and medical facilities, and even in the home. Many scientific instruments perform dedicated radiation measurement tasks; the nuclear power industry employs possibly the greatest number of instruments of different designs and degrees of sophistication. This article describes similar instruments commonly used for radiation protection in medicine.
Instruments used for radiation dosimetry for medical treatments and those used for medical treatments are excluded. Included are instruments used for the general tasks of detecting radiation, determining the types of radiation or species of radionuclides present, determining quantities of radionuclides, and measuring radiation levels around materials and equipment. The focus is how instruments detect radiation, not their electronic circuity, which is described only briefly in a few instances. Before choosing an instrument, the user must know about the availability and choice of instruments, types and sources of radiation, special terms that describe quantities of radiation, and measures of biological dose equivalency that individuals receives in the presence of radiation.
A science discipline, Health Physics(aluminum crutches price), and a scientific society, the Health Physics Society, are devoted to these topics. Since the1988 first edition of this article, major changes in medical radiation protection instrumentation include the development of the Internet for dissemination, by manufacturers and vendors, of information about instrument designs, operating parameters, and performances; improved performance and electronic circuitry using chips with complementary metal oxide semiconductors microprocessor technology of various types; miniaturization of computer components that reduce the weight and size of instruments; and new 500 RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION definitions and terms used to describe radiation quantities and units.
Manufacturers market smaller, compact survey meters, personnel dosimeters, and specialized detectors and monitors with improved performance. We review common features of instruments, such as ionization chambers, gas-proportional counters, Geiger–Mu¨ eller tubes, scintillation and solid-state detectors, other lesscommon detectors, and photographic films.